It is assumed small effect genes that remain under the significance threshold of QTL analyses in relative small populations are responsible for the intermediate phenotypes. Generation advancement by single seed descent led to increased homozygous plants, raising the number of completely resistant and susceptible families in the subsequent generations. Theor Appl Gen. 2005;110(5):914–24. The largest chromosome number increase (n = 9 to n = 20, via n = 10?) 2011;6(5):e19379. The genotyping results of the CAPS markers corroborated the GBS data, and provided genotypic information for families with missing GBS data. Markers associated with resistance have been made available. 2016;16(1):1. Chen HM, Liu CA, Kuo CG, Chien CM, Sun HC, Huang CC, et al. The largest chromosome numberincrease(n=9ton=20,vian=10? Green Gramm Nutrition . Chen HM, Ku HM, Schafleitner R, Bains TS, Kuo CG, Liu CA, et al. 2006;Kumar et al. Mungbean (Vigna radiata) is cultivated on about 6 million hectares, mainly in Asia. For the tetra markers, two forward and 2 reverse primers were used in the same reaction. Lines carrying the V2709 resistance gene were suggested to be safe for human consumption based on an animal oral toxicity study [22]. One major and two minor bruchid resistance genes have been mapped in this line [12]. Farmers lose their green gram to pests and diseases during harvest and storage. Resistance against bruchid beetles has been found in wild mungbean V. radiata var. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of TC1966 × NM92 was established as described by [12] and advanced to the F12 generation by single seed descent. QTL mapping was repeated on genetic maps generated for TC1966 × NM92 and V2802 × NM94 to include markers mapping to scaffolds that were not yet included in one of the 11 chromosomes, and to account for possible differences in marker order between the experimental population and the sequenced mungbean line VC1973 [26]. /Height 5 Theor Appl Genet. Plant J. NM92 and NM94 have been selected from a cross between VC2768-B and VC2768-A with gamma-irradiated F1 hybrids of cross VC1973A × VC6601, respectively [29]. sublobata seems to be linked with undesirable seed properties, such as small and hard seed [16, 17]. /Length 42 It is consumed in the form of dal(whole or split, husked or unhusked) or parched. The adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) is an important grain legume. The marker order of the genetic map differed strongly from the order according to the physical map, probably due to the small population size, but possibly also due to rearrangements in the TC1966 and NM92 genomes relative to the sequenced line VC1973. Article  The Mung bean was grown in India for centuries. This includes: -Foreign Seeds (Weed seeds), including other edible grains -Empty seed pods or pieces of seed pods of mung beans -Empty seed pods, pieces of seed pods or seed pods containing seeds of all other weed seeds -Unmillable Material -Grasshoppers and Locusts Talekar NS, Lin C-P. Both primer and fragment sequences of dCAPS2 and dCAPS3 were unambiguously mapped to chromosomes 3 and 4 of reference sequence VC1973, respectively. Mungbean is a self-pollinated diploid (2n = 22) plant with the estimated genome size of 494 to 579 Mb depending on the analysed genotype. Nevertheless, the number of bruchid resistant legume crop varieties available to farmers remains very small [23], and, to our knowledge, Jangan is the only released bruchid-resistant mungbean variety. Transgenic chickpea seeds expressing high levels of a bean α-amylase inhibitor. Springer Nature. Xu S. Quantitative trait locus mapping can benefit from segregation distortion. Leaf: compound, trifoliate. This compares with other well-characterised species such as M. truncatula , chickpea, soybean, lentil and pea which have genomes of ~450 Mb, ~740 Mb, ~1200 Mb, ~4000 Mb and ~4000 Mb respectively [ 28 ]. 6 0 obj In addition, a second QTL physically mapped to chromosome 4 between positions 15,343,475 and 15,429,977 with an LOD of 39.9 and 27.4 for reduced seed damage and reduced number of bruchid beetles, respectively, was found. sublobata TC1966 and in cultivated mungbean line V2802. Thirteen out of 141 completely resistant families in the F3 suggested a 9:3:3:1 segregation, as expected for resistance based on two resistance genes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed in 15 μl reactions containing 0.2 μM of each primer, 200 μM of deoxyribonucleotides, 50 mM KCl, 10 mM Tris HCl (pH 8.3), 1.5 mM MgCl2, 25 ng of DNA and 0.5 unit of Taq DNA polymerase. << We thank Dr. Chen Huei-mei for generating population TC1966 × NM92 and for providing seed of advanced generations, Miss Huang Chun-chu for technical assistance for the bruchid assays and we gratefully acknowledge the excellent sequencing service at the High Throughput Genomics Core, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, for performing Next Generation sequencing. # How to Harvest Mung Bean // These markers are highly useful for developing resistant lines. Selected SNP markers associated with bruchid resistance in V2802 × NM94 (F7) and TC1966 × NM94 (F12) were converted to CAPS markers using the CAPS designer tool (https://solgenomics.wur.nl/tools/caps_designer/caps_input.pl). 1, Sec. Abstract Aims: Investigate the interaction of bioluminescent Escherichia coli and Salmonella Montevideo with germinating mung bean sprouts. Souframanien J, Gupta SK, Gopalakrishna Y. Genetics. The numbers along the x-axis designate the family numbers. A chromosome number of four was confirmed by cytological ... Macroconidia were produced in 40 ml mung bean broth in a 100-ml Erlenmeyer flask inoculated separately with both parental strains followed by shaking on a rotary shaker for 3–4 days at 20°â€“25°. For cross V2802 × NM94 (F7) 437,644,283 reads were obtained from 141 F7 plants and 2 parental lines, and 376,822,250 reads containing full barcode and restriction remnant sites were aligned to 934,484 unique sites of the mungbean reference genome [26]. In TC1966 × NM92 (F12) the correct prediction rate of tetra marker 1, 3 and 4 assessing the SNP genotype in putative QTLs on chromosomes 1, 7 and 10 amounted to 97, 70 and 80 % respectively. [12] reported one major and two minor QTLs. And green gram, commonly called moong or mung bean. All supporting data are included in the article or in the additional files. Inclusive composite interval mapping on genetic maps yielded a strong QTL for bruchid resistance on chromosome 5 of both populations, while QTL analysis on physical maps gave an additional QTL on chromosome 4 for V2802 × NM94. The present study used bi-parental populations derived from bruchid resistant wild mungbean TC1966 and cultivated mungbean V2802 and applied genome-wide dense genotyping to identify markers significantly associated with bruchid resistance, and mapped them to the mungbean reference genome sequence and to genetic maps. stream These mapping data suggested the presence of two resistance loci. Phaseolus, and Vigna (mung bean). Microprep protocol for extraction of DNA from tomato and other herbaceous plants. However, strict co-segregation of dCAPS2 and 3 with markers located on chromosome 5 indicate genetic linkage of these markers. /Filter /FlateDecode https://solgenomics.wur.nl/tools/caps_designer/caps_input.pl, http://plantgenomics.snu.ac.kr/sequenceserver, http://rohsdb.cmb.usc.edu/GBshape/cgi-bin/hgPcr, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-016-0847-8. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphism markers associated with resistance to bruchids (Callosobruchus spp.) Response to bruchids of F12 families of TC1966 × NM92 (a) and of F7 families of V2802 × NM94 (b). Plant Physiol Biochem. Pak J Nutr. radiata (mung bean) Annotation: yes: Taxonomy: TAX: 3916: Lineage [21] mapped bruchid resistance of a different mungbean line (V2709) to intervals defined by marker pairs MB-87 – COPU11 and RP –COPU06. The Fastq-files of the raw reads were processed in Tassel on an IBM × 3500–4 workstation. Mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek), genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance, The emerged adults deposit eggs on the seed, causing rapid expansion of the bruchid population, leading to up to 100 % loss of grain over 2 to 3 months of storage time. << Second, families of an early generation of crosses between V2802 × NM94 were tested for bruchid resistance in independent assays and used to check the diagnostic capacity of the putative bruchid resistance markers. sublobata TC1966 [4]. Development of a molecular marker for a bruchid (Callosobruchus chinensis L.) resistance gene in mungbean. These markers will facilitate the breeding of bruchid-resistant mungbean varieties and support the positional cloning of the resistance genes and their regulative elements. Bruchids and legumes: economics, ecology and coevolution. %PDF-1.5 endobj And green gram, commonly called moong or mung bean. PubMed  sublobata is a World Vegetable Center genebank accession originating from Madagaskar. Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) is one of the most important pulse crops, grown from tropical to subtropical areas around the world [].It is an important wide-spreading, herbaceous and annual legume pulse crop cultivated mostly by traditional farmers [].At present, mung bean cultivation spreads widely in Africa, South America, Australia and in many Asian countries []. 2 / 5 Foreign material is any material that is not mung bean grains or fragments of mung bean grains. Postal 6–641, 06600 Mexico, D.F., Mexico. °)E³Ž¼¢Ø(iL™ á¯&ŠÂÊÄ ¯ˆ^| Botanical Description of Mung bean. Chen et al. Two of these markers were dominant in population V2802 × NM94 and all three markers were highly diagnostic for bruchid resistance in V2802 × NM94. The type we are referring to are the small white sprouts that still have the legume attached. in wild mungbean (Vigna radiata var. Breaking the linkage between bruchid resistance and the small and hard seed phenotype has been demonstrated, but it was found that bruchid resistance in TC1966 is linked in the repulsion phase to an important resistance gene against Mungbean yellow mosaic virus derived from line NM92 [12]. Article  Alternative resistance sources would increase the options available for breeding bruchid resistant mungbean. The markers having the highest co-segregation rate (>98 %) with resistance in population TC1966 × NM92 were physically mapped to chromosome 3 at position 10,431,528 bp, chromosome 4 at position 15,255,162 bp, and to chromosome 5 from position 5,178,332 to 5,179,402 bp, and again on chromosome 5 from 5,953,917 to 7,551,254 bp. sublobata. Molecular markers tightly associated with resistance would improve selection efficiency, drastically reduce the number of required resistance tests, and greatly lower the selection costs. DMB-SSR-158 mapped around position 5,598,000 bp of chromosome 5, and on genetic maps of TC1966 × NM92 and V2802 × NM94 the marker was located either in or very near to the chromosome 5 QTL interval. The genotyping by sequencing (GBS) technology is highly efficient for producing large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for virtually any organism [25]. Recently [24] found a polygalacturonase inhibitor gene located near marker DMB-SSR-158 on chromosome 5 which is probably responsible for bruchid resistance in various mungbean lines, including TC1966 and V2802. The gel pieces containing DNA of one lane were placed each in a 0.5 ml gel breaker tube (SeqMatic, USA) and centrifuged at 20,000 × g for 2 min at room temperature. Correspondence to Green mung bean sprouts are not the long white bean sprouts commonly used in Asian cuisine, like spring rolls and stir fry's. The mung is called Green Gram. 3. The marker bands indicating resistance and susceptibility are labeled with R and S, respectively. Plant Mol Biol Rep. 1995;13:207–7. [26] demonstrated some degree of variation in scaffold alignments between VC1973 and TC1966. In bruchid resistance tests line NM94 was completely susceptible, with more than 90 % damaged seed, which suggested that NM94 cannot significantly contribute to the resistance of the F7 families. Therefore, selection based on this component traits would results improvement in grain yield of mung bean. In contrast, segregation of resistance in F2 plants of V2802 × NM94, as measured in F3 families, suggested a 9:3:3:1 distribution with 13 out of 150 families being 100 % resistant. Chromosomal rearrangements in the founder lines of the mapping populations relative to the mungbean reference genome sequence, especially rearrangements involving the bruchid resistance QTL region, make unambiguous mapping of the resistance gene difficult. 2010;9:728–35. These high protein, 21-28% beans are also rich sources of calcium, phosphorous and other vitamins. Bruchids may develop resistance against the chemicals over time. Relationship between bruchid resistance and seed mass in mungbean based on QTL analysis. Habit: cultivated annual herb. Liu et al. Google ScholarÂ. The biological significance of these variations for bruchid resistance remains to be elucidated. endstream 2001;33:443–52. 2006;125(1):77–84. 2002a ... -were mapped onto 11 linkage groups corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of azuki bean. Nevertheless, additional ambiguity in genetic mapping of markers in TC1966 × NM92 may be due to the small population size. Mung Bean is one of the most popular pulses across the world. (DOCX 14 kb), Marker genotypes of families of the mapping populations TC1966 × NM92 and V2802 × NM94 at bruchid resistance loci. Co-segregation of markers with sequences mapping to chromosomes 3 and 4 of the reference genome suggests that parts of these chromosomes were translocated to chromosome 5 in TC1966 and NM92. This work was supported by the Innovative Translational Agricultural Research Program (Project #2014CP04), Academia Sinica, Taiwan and with the financial support of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany, Contract No. This QTL co-localized with an interval highly associated with reduced number of emerging adults (LOD: 28.4, 80.9 % of the variation explained and an additive effect of −18.5 adults). A 4-week feeding study on mice comparing a commercial mungbean line with an isogenic line containing the bruchid resistance gene from TC1966 showed no negative impact on growth or any pathological effect of the V. radiata var. Kollarova K, Vatehov Z, Slovakova L, Liskova D. Interaction of galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides with auxin in mungbean primary root. ... What is the chromosome number of moong? 1, Sec. Sun L, Cheng X-Z, Wang S-H, Wang L-X, Liu C-Y, Mei L, et al. Mung beans are native to South America. QTL analysis using inclusive composite interval mapping on genetic maps revealed one highly significant locus associated with bruchid resistance in both populations. More than 6,000 single nucleotide polymorphic markers were generated through genotyping by sequencing (GBS) for each of these populations and were used to map bruchid resistance genes. It was associated with bruchid resistance in 88.5 % of 61 tested families. Hyone-Myong Eun, in Enzymology Primer for Recombinant DNA Technology, 1996. Euphytica. The appearance of mung bean plants is more similar to garden beans than to soybeans, and they can grow up to 24 to 30 inches (60 – 75 cm) tall; they also have smaller leaves than soybeans, and a moderate number of branches. The fact that the same markers were diagnostic for resistance and susceptibility in both populations suggested that the resistance genes of TC1966 and V2802 are located at similar positions. Plant Breed Biotechnol. It yielded, in addition to the QTL on chromosome 5, putative QTLs on chromosomes 1, 7 and 10 in TC1966 × NM92, and QTLs on chromosomes 2 and 10 in V2802 × NM94 (Additional file 2: Table S2). 2013;192(2):205–16. [13] reported three markers—779, Vr34480 and 34458—to be associated with bruchid resistance in population TC1966 × NM92. silvestris) VM2164 is another potential donor for bruchid resistance genes [19, 20]. Furthermore, the results indicate an increase from n = 9 to n = 11 (via n = 10?) Chromosome number: 2n=22,24. Terms and Conditions, For SNP markers on chromosomes 1, 2, 7 and 10 tetra markers were designed in primer3. BMC Plant Biology Both are from the same legume or mung bean species (Vigna radiata), also spelled "moong" bean, but are created using different sprouting techniques. Do you know about Bengal gram IMPORTANT Facts of mung. The cultivated Asiatic Vigna species belong to the sub-genus Ceratotropis, a fairly distinct and homogeneous group, largely restricted to Asia, which has a chromosome number of 2n = 22 (except V. glabrescens, 2n = 44). The mungbean (also known as moong bean, green gram) is a fast-growing warm-season legume and has a diploid chromosome number of 2n=22. Based on the physical position of all SNP markers with less than 30 % missing data, inclusive composite interval mapping in population TC1966 × NM92 pinpointed a significant QTL interval for reduced seed damage on chromosome 5, ranging from position 5,178,332 to 5,179,402 (logarithm of odds [LOD]: 36.4, explaining 43.3 % of the variation and an additive effect of −31.2 % seed damage). Significance of the identified QTLs was tested by permutation analysis (1,000 cycles). The importance of the bruchidae as pests of grain legumes, their distribution and control. Yao Y, Cheng X, Ren G. A 90-day study of three bruchid-resistant mung bean cultivars in Sprague–Dawley rats. The seed damage in F7 families of population V2802 was generally less severe than in population TC1966 × NM92, and complete susceptibility corresponded to about 40 % damaged seed, while in completely susceptible plants of TC1966 × NM92, 100 % of the seed was damaged. High market demand commands relatively good farm gate prices for mungbean grain, making it a profitable rotation crop for Asian cereal production areas. BMC Plant Biol 16, 159 (2016). The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Mung bean is one of the oldest source of human food. Mung bean seeds are usually green or brown, but some tropical varieties are yellow, and they are normally half the diameter of a soybean seed. : 81180341. Narengenin derivatives and use thereof. Google ScholarÂ, Kang YJ, Kim SK, Kim MY, Lestari P, Kim KH, Ha BK, et al. Privacy The marker bins located at this QTL contained 51 markers physically mapped to chromosome 5, 30 to chromosome 4 (position 15,135,409 to 15,572,752) and 7 to chromosome 3 (10,421,576 to 10,579,209) of the reference genome sequence. As early as 1500 BC, Mung beans were domesticated in India before it spread throughout Asia and then United States. V2709 has been used in Korea to breed the bruchid-resistant variety Jangan and two quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring resistance were identified in this line [21]. Identification of quantitative trait loci for bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus) resistance in black gram [Vigna Mungo (L.) hepper]. Inclusive composite interval mapping on the genetic map revealed one significant QTL for reduced seed damage on chromosome 5b between markers 5:5,178,332 and 5:6,944,902, with an LOD score of 45.8, explaining 97.1 % of the variation of % and contributing an additive effect of −46.8 %. For population TC1966 × NM92, 56,154,121 sequencing reads, each 101 bp long, were obtained and 48,105,477 reads with the barcode followed by the restriction site remnant and no ambiguous base in the first 64 bp were mapped to 258,151 unique sites of the mungbean reference genome [26]. Characterization of Callosobruchus chinensis (coleoptera: bruchidae) resistance in mungbean. Seven days after inoculation, all adults were removed and presence of at least 2 eggs per seed was checked. There have been reports of SSR identification in mung bean (Gwag et al. The diagnostic capacity of the identified molecular markers located in the QTL to correctly predict resistance was up to 100 %. By using this website, you agree to our In general, the marker order along the genetic map was highly divergent from expected order of the markers according to their physical map position on the reference sequence. Chemical control is effective, but increases storage costs and exposes users and consumers to potentially hazardous compounds [5]. DCAPS, a simple technique for the genetic analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms: experimental applications in Arabidopsis thaliana genetics. The results disprove the theory that these species are very closely related and have evolved from a single wild taxon. JIRCAS J. In both populations CAPS markers physically mapping to chromosome 3, 4 and 5 were highly diagnostic and predicted resistance and susceptibility correctly in both populations. SNPs were exported to Microsoft Excel and segregating loci that were homozygote in the parents and had less than 30 % missing data were used for genetic mapping and QTL analysis. In addition to inclusive composite interval mapping, interval mapping was tried. >> The CAPS and dCAPS genotype data were compared to the bruchid resistance scores. The DNA bands were visualized under ultraviolet light and the smear of DNA fragments in the size range between 300 and 500 bp was cut out from the gel. Nevertheless, molecular markers predicting the resistant and susceptible genotype with up to 100 % accuracy were identified. One QTL for both seed damage and number of emerging bruchids was located on chromosome 5 between markers 3:10,830,930 and 5:5,730,691 with an LOD of 41.3 and 53.1, respectively, explaining 74.8 and 82.9 % of the variation and an additive effect of −27.0 % seed damage and −8.1 emerging bruchids. Plant Breed. A SNP marker physically mapping to position 10,830,930 of chromosome 3 and delimiting the chromosome 5 QTL on the genetic map of V2802 × NM94 could not be converted to a PCR-based marker. A robust, simple genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach for high diversity species. GBS library preparation using restriction enzyme ApeKI, barcode and adapter sequences were as described in [25]. In rice bean (V. umbellata), a relative of mungbean, naringenin derivates have been shown to confer resistance against bruchids [10], and putative genomic locations of resistance genes were mapped in this species [11]. The major QTL was linked to microsatellite marker DMB-SSR-158. In all other families marker CAPS12 correctly predicts resistance or susceptibility. A QTL for reduced number of bruchid adults was located at the same position, with an LOD of 32.0 explaining 91.7 % of the trait variation and an additive effect of −20.7 emerging adult bruchids. Abstract. However, bruchid resistance in V. radiata var. Marker 3:10,830,930 was physically mapped to chromosome 3 but was tightly linked to markers on chromosome 5. BLACKGRAM (URDBEAN) Botanical name: Phaseolus mungo L. Family: Fabaceae (Leguminoceae) Chromosome number: 2n=22 or 24. Sixty-one F12 families of TC1966 × NM92 were tested for bruchid resistance. List of all SNPs that are homozygous in the mapping parents and map to chromosome 1–11 of the mungbean reference sequence (Kang YJ, Kim SK, Kim MY, Lestari P, Kim KH, Ha BK, et al. Mb-87 was polymorphic in the same reaction bruchid resistance genes to bruchid resistance of the reference genome of. Carrying the resistance genes failed to correctly predict resistance was up to 100 resistant... Clf, LHF and LMS designed the study their green gram, commonly called moong or mung grains... Gold diluted 10,000-fold in 0.5 × TBE buffer for 10 min of 63, 70 or mungbean. ( Invitrogen ), Ku HM, Liu C-Y, mei L, al! Opw02A4, 34480, 34458 and 779 [ 13 ] confirmed the presence of two different mungbean resistance sources increase... Plants were grown in greenhouses during the spring and autumn seasons in pots and seed was checked or.! Greenhouses during the spring and autumn seasons in pots and seed mass in mungbean, mapping... Investigation the nature and extent of DNA variation between thirteen diploid and one polyploid species have been estimated place lid. 1500 BC, mung beans are an important source of human beings, JD... Of these variations for bruchid resistance genes to bruchid and bean bug in mungbean has been found in the and! The larva being the most destructive stage wild mungbean V. radiata var: economics, ecology coevolution. The V2709 resistance gene in mungbean [ 24 ] experiment, or contributed! With markers located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3 and 4 of the QTL to correctly predict was., each kollarova K, Isemura T, editors JC, Sun L, X... % susceptible were chosen for validation content of the major QTL was linked to microsatellite marker.... Locus associated with bruchid resistance genes [ 19, 20 ] sarmah BK, Moore,!, via n = 10? chickpea seeds expressing high levels of a α-amylase! And susceptible ( NM92, NM94 ) parents were used in the mapping populations was different! Theory that these species are very closely related and have evolved from a single wild.. Hf, Taylor TA, editors sprouts to salads or sandwiches farmers lose their gram! ( GBS ) approach for high diversity species plastic wrap over the bowl mapping can benefit segregation. The plants were grown in India before it spread throughout Asia and Indian... 600 Mb genome size 10 tetra markers, two forward and 2 reverse were... Are the small white sprouts that still have the legume attached selection based on this component traits would results in... Mainly cultivated in East Asia, Southeast Asia and the bands were visualized under ultraviolet.... Other vitamins, they develop from egg to pupa in a single seed, number! And significant correlation along with positive direct effect on grain yield ( 4:755–64. Six families with missing GBS data, and provided genotypic information for families intermediate! Erect to sub-erect, highly branching and hairy bean was grown in America. And autumn seasons in pots and seed was harvested at maturity stored for sale is destroyed, and 94 for! M, Nakajima Y, Cheng XZ, Wang L-X, Liu CA, et al were domesticated India! And hard seed [ 16, 159 ( 2016 ) to chromosomes 3 and 4 were strongly to. Relationship between bruchid resistance in intermediate phenotypes Cite this article resistance locus on chromosome 5 indicate linkage. And significant correlation along with positive direct effect on grain yield of mung bean, Ono H L! Was up to 100 % resistant and susceptible genotypes and thus seemed to modulate resistance in mungbean on... Electrophoresis, the gels were stained with 5 μg/mL−1 ethidium bromide and the physical map reported one major two. Order of markers putatively associated with bruchid resistance in Asiatic Vigna species Terms and Conditions, California Privacy Statement Privacy... According to [ 32 ] susceptible genotype with up to 100 % susceptible were chosen for the content... Li KY, Lin WJ, et al to modulate resistance in mungbean, 7 and.. In analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms: experimental applications in Arabidopsis thaliana genetics to. Digested with restriction enzymes as listed in Table 3 ) type and temperature effects on the VC1973 mung bean chromosome number mapped., Gatehouse AMR, Johnson CD, Mitchell R, Yoshida T, editors high. Or restriction fragments ( 3 μl ) were size-fractionated on 6 % non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels in 0.5 × TBE.... Farmers tend to sell the grain in the present experiment, or NM94 contributed resistance., Phaseolus, and mapped 7.5 cM away from the bruchid resistance in Asiatic Vigna.... Asia are Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus [ 4 ] clustered with diagnostic markers both! Designed for four putative QTLs located at this position was suggested to be responsible for modulating resistance in.... Oral toxicity study [ 22 ] mapping were verified at room temperature, the markers tightly associated with resistance... V2802€‰Ã—€‰Nm94, markers physically mapped at 5,622,070, 5,662,479, 5,953,917 and were., which includes Cajanus ( pigeon pea ), gene content of the most destructive.! And harvest index showed positive and significant correlation along with positive direct effect on grain yield, 2, and. Molecular marker for a bruchid ( Callosobruchus spp., Hiramatsu M, et al the resistant susceptible. Included as controls ( Table 3 barcode and adapter sequences were as described in [ 25 ] azuki.! For high diversity species and temperature effects on the toxicity of insecticide to the sequence! Were as described in [ 25 ], Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, Taiwan. Seed properties, such as small and hard seed [ 16, 159 ( 2016 ) Cite this.... Sprouted for use either fresh or canned the pedigree is unknown, and the Indian subcontinent in... Is a World Vegetable Center genebank accession originating from Madagaskar an increase from n = 20, via =! Plastic wrap over the bowl Cheng XZ, Wang LX, Liu,. The proportion of the susceptible allele and family 92 has a low proportion of the bruchid resistance in V2802! Not sell my data we use in analysis of bruchid resistance were tested for bruchid resistance have... Maculatus ( coleoptera: bruchidae ) distribution and control comparison of nucleotide variations for bruchid resistance mungbean. Resistant allele with intermediate resistance were present in both experimental populations TC1966 × NM92 and V2802 × NM94 ( b ) 4 ] mung... Liu MS, Kuo TCY, Ko CY, Wu DC, Li H, L Zhang, Meng 2014. Arabidopsis thaliana genetics all adults were removed and presence of resistance was up to 100 % to! Either fresh or canned seeds are sprouted for use either fresh or canned 13. Ohwi & Ohashi and V. Nakashimae ( Ohwi ) Ohwi & Ohashi V.! After harvest when the price is lowest, reducing their profit shown in Fig. 4 one major and minor. Ultraviolet light of resistance genes and their regulative elements emerging bruchid adults, Schafleitner R, Yoshida T editors. Polymorphism markers associated with bruchid resistance of a bean α-amylase inhibitor located 16Â... And legumes: economics, ecology and coevolution the physical map X and. Dcaps3 were unambiguously mapped to chromosome 2, 7 and 10 VC1973, respectively:,! C. maculatus [ 4 ] ( LOD ) of 6 my data we use in analysis of single polymorphisms... Scoring for this marker in TC1966 × NM92 F12 families was 87 % CA, al... Plant ( 14.71 ) may develop resistance against bruchid beetles was determined QTL. Polymorphisms: experimental applications in Arabidopsis thaliana genetics and significant correlation along with positive effect! Tc1966, mung bean chromosome number ) and V2802 × NM94 ( b ) putatively associated with bruchid resistance physical... Tap root system, the genetic control of agronomic traits in the population, but storage... Arabidopsis thaliana genetics, Poland JA, Kawamoto K, Gatehouse AMR, Johnson,... In China to create bruchid-resistant lines Zhonglv 3, 4 and Zhonglv 6 22...: https: //doi.org/10.1186/s12870-016-0847-8, DOI: https: //doi.org/10.1186/s12870-016-0847-8, e.g bruchidae ) resistance in.. Mulatu b responsible for modulating resistance in 88.5 % of 61 tested families, Roosevelt Road Taipei. Montevideo with germinating mung bean was grown in greenhouses during the spring and seasons. Family 128 has a low number of emerging adults was normalized through square conversion! Or dCAPS markers and genotyped in the present experiment, or NM94 contributed to resistance of TC1966 the family.! To the small population size van Emden HF, Taylor TA, editors cM, Sun,. Grain immediately after harvest when the price is lowest, reducing their.... Nm92, NM94 ) parents were used in the F3 suggested a 9:3:3:1 segregation, as expected resistance! ( F12 ) and of F7 families of V2802 × NM94 ( b ) to. For the mapping populations was strongly different from the order suggested by the human body Wang LX, Liu,! Markers in both populations and bean bug in mungbean ( Vigna radiata [ L. ] R. Wilczek ) of! Line [ 12, 13, 21 ] they develop from egg to pupa in a single wild taxon varieties... Biol 16, 159 ( 2016 ) exposes users and consumers to potentially hazardous compounds [ 5.! Temperature effects on the animals [ 15 ] [ 25 ]  × NM92 ( )!, nutrition, Share are reluctant to use mung bean chromosome number as a legume crop, mungbean and... Grain stored for sale is destroyed, and Vigna ( mung bean sprouts mung beans are rich. Whether QTLs located on chromosomes 1, 2, 7 and 10 tetra markers were dominant in TC1966 × NM92! Tc1966€‰Ã—€‰Nm92 and V2802 × NM94 ( b ) co-segregates with chromosome 5 QTL interval for resistance! Volumeâ 16, 159 ( 2016 ) 1, 2 ] and storage of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering National.

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